One huge thing to remember when thinking about the Old Covenant and the New Covenant is this:
Not all members of the Old Covenant were saved.
Whereas, all members of the New Covenant, are saved.
Did you get that? Because that’s important!
The Old Covenant was made with a genetic race of people–Jews.
The New Covenant is made of all those who are born again in Christ.
The Old Covenant has to do with family (that’s why there are genealogies all over it), an exact geographic Promised Land, a temple with priests and sacrifices, and external, written in stone theocratic law.
The New Covenant has to do with born again members of God’s family (no difference between Jew and Gentile), a call to heaven (the better country), those with the Spirit are the temple, Christ is the High Priest and the sacrifice, and the law is written in our hearts by the presence of God’s Spirit in all members.
The difference between the two covenants is night and day. Hebrews tells us the New Covenant is better, and boy howdy is it!
The Old Covenant was between God and racial Israel, you have to see that point. Violating that covenant meant they’d be kicked out of the Land and dispersed. They violated it and they were dispersed.
The basic summation of Israel’s responsibility is the Ten Commandments along with the other commands, and particularly the commands about their religious service–sacrifices, temple, priests, etc.
New Covenant people don’t need a rock to tell us what to do. We have Christ in us. Christ is the revelation of the righteousness of God apart from the Law and Prophets.
Believers today are in the New Covenant. We are under the Law of Christ, the perfect law of liberty. Where that is in step with the Mosaic Law, that’s fine, but we are not called to follow Moses’ Law, particularly not the religious aspects of it that were all fulfilled in Christ.
This is a big deal. There is much confusion over this issue. It should be handled correctly. Think on it.